This table shows the use of the accusative case without definite or indefinite article.
|singular, male||roten Tisch|
|singular, female||weiße Tasse|
|singular, neuter||blaues Buch|
|plural, all genders or mixed||rote Tomaten|
The table "accusative case (1)" illustrated the adjective endings with article, whilst above they are shown without. You will notice that the adjective endings in singular without article are the same as in singular with indefinite article. However, in the plural they are different.
General use of the accusative case with and without article:
The accusative is used:
>>> for direct objects. This is its main function, which applies whether there is an article or not (In most phrases, either a definite or indefinite article or a possessive adjective such as mein/meine, dein/deine etc., is used. Then, accordingly, the table "The nominative case (1)" would be applicable).
>>>after certain prepositions: As you already know, 'für' is followed by the accusative. This is a strict statement which overrules all other rules of case application - that means you have to use the accusative after für whatever the context may be.The same applies for the following prepositions:
à, betreffend, bis, durch, entlang*, für, gegen, je, kontra, ohne, per, pro, um, versus, via, wider
These prepostions are always using the accusative. However, please be aware that 'um' and 'ohne' can also be used as conjunctions.While, as prepositions, they are bound to be used with the accusative, they may be followed by other cases when used as a conjunction. Please compare:
>>> expressing a time span, definite time or frequency
>>> writing the address and the date on a letter:
>>>after prepositions such as in, auf,
unter (and others), if and only if a direction is expressed.
Other than the prepositions above, which always take the accusative, there is a group of prepositions which are called 'Wechselpräpositionen', that is prepositions which can be followed by different cases, depending on the context. Many of these prepositions describe locations or positions. Mostly they are used with the dative, however they take the accusative if (and only if) a direction is expressed. This is a motion towards a point, even it this point may not be specified. Please see "Prepositions with dative and accusative" for detailed information. Here are some examples; underlined words are in the dative, purple ones in the accusative:
The accusative (as the other cases) is used without
>>> in all phrases which are meant to be very short, often reduced to the smallest number of words necessary to convey the meaning. This is true for all cases, not only for the accusative. It could apply:
>>> after numbers. While a possessive adjective 'behaves' like an indefinite article (which means table "Acc. (1)" applies), numbers do not 'behave' that way, so using a number is like not using an article and the table above applies.
>>>after certain adverbs. The table above does apply to adverbs such as viele, wenige, andere, einige, ein paar, ein Paar, folgende, mehrere, verschiedene (however, these adverbs can be combined with a preceeding article, and in this case the table "The acc.case (1)" would apply).